Lung and Bronchial Cancer
What is lung cancer?
Lung cancer is cancer that develops in the lungs. Cancer cells grow abnormally to form tumors. As the tumors progress, healthy lung tissue is destroyed.
Lung cancer is common among both men and women. It causes more deaths each year than colon, prostate, ovarian and breast cancers combined.
What are the different types of lung cancer?
The most common type of lung cancer is non-small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer spreads more slowly than the other main type of lung cancer, small cell lung cancer.
Non-small cell lung cancer can be categorized into three types: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma usually develops on the outside of the lungs in the epithelial cells. Squamous cell carcinoma is commonly found in the center of the lung. Large cell carcinoma can develop in any part of the lung and typically spreads more rapidly than other types of non-small cell lung cancer.
The other main type of lung cancer, small cell lung cancer, can be categorized into two types: small cell carcinoma and combined small cell cancer. Small cell lung cancer commonly develops in the center of the chest near the bronchi and quickly spreads, or metastasizes, to other parts of the body. The majority of cases of small cell lung cancer are caused by smoking.
What are the symptoms of lung cancer?
Lung cancer does not typically show signs or symptoms until the disease has progressed. When symptoms do appear, they vary from patient to patient, but commonly include:
- Development of a cough
- Changes in an existing chronic cough
- Coughing up blood
- Shortness of breath
- Chest pain
- Frequent lung infections (bronchitis, pneumonia, etc.)
- Unintended weight loss
- Loss of appetite
- Bone pain
What are the causes and risk factors of lung cancer?
More than 80% of lung cancer is caused by cigarette smoking. If you currently smoke and are interested in quitting, call your physician or Baptist Cancer Center to learn about smoking cessation.
Other risk factors of lung cancer include:
- Family history
- Exposure to secondhand smoke
- Exposure to radon
- Exposure to asbestos
- Exposure to other chemicals and pollutants
If symptoms indicate lung cancer as a possible diagnosis, your physician will recommend a series of diagnostic tests. These tests may include chest x-rays or other imaging tests, tests on sputum, or mucus produced by the lungs and/or a biopsy.
How is lung cancer treated?
Treatment for lung cancer is tailored for each patient. At Baptist Cancer Center, our Thoracic Oncology Program focuses on high-quality, personalized patient care, research and treatment options. For patients diagnosed with lung cancer, treatment options depend on many factors, including the type and stage of lung cancer, as well as the patient's age, medical history and overall health.
Treatment commonly includes chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted drug therapy or a combination of all of these options. Additionally, low dose CT scans allow Baptist health care professionals to screen and detect lung cancer in earlier stages for patients who meet high-risk criteria, such as smoking or using tobacco.
For patients who do not meet the high-risk criteria but may develop lung cancer, Baptist’s Lung Nodule Program helps doctors detect lung cancer in its earliest stage. Doctors examine data from patients who visit the emergency department for reasons unrelated to cancer. By scanning electronic health records and coordinating follow-up care for patients with the potential for lung cancer, Baptist health care teams can treat patients before the disease spreads.
At Baptist’s Multidisciplinary Thoracic Oncology Clinic, we take a collaborative approach to care. Doctors from multiple specialties consult as a group to gather data and review patient cases. Our team of experts includes oncologists, pulmonologists, pathologists, radiologists, thoracic surgeons, nurse navigators and data managers. This team uses the latest treatments, as well as remote participation from cancer care professionals at Baptist facilities across the Mid-South, to design an individualized treatment plan that’s right for each patient.
Clinical Research Trials
Baptist offers many clinical trials for lung cancer patients, including preventive, treatment and screening trials. The Mid-South region suffers from an abundance of disparities related to higher cancer death rates in minorities. At Baptist Cancer Center, we are committed to changing this reality through our participation in the National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) as one of only four non-academic institutions in the nation. NCORP brings researchers together with local physicians to conduct high quality clinical trials for cancer patients directly in their community and our grant provides Mid-South patients unprecedented access to clinical trials and research.